Conventional mechanical gyroscopes mainly use the principle of conservation of angular momentum, that is, for a rotating object, its axis of rotation does not change with the rotation of the bracket carrying it. The MEMS gyroscope mainly utilizes the principle of Coriolis force (the tangential force of a rotating object when it has radial motion). The disclosed micromechanical gyroscope adopts the concept of the angular velocity of the vibrating object, and uses vibration to induce and detect. Coriolis force.
At the heart of the MEMS gyroscope is a micromachined mechanical unit that is designed to resonate in accordance with a tuning fork mechanism to convert the angular rate into a displacement of a particular sensing structure using the Coriolis force principle. Taking a single-axis offset (yaw, YAW) gyroscope as an example, the simplest working principle is explored through Tuli.
Two identical masses oscillate horizontally in opposite directions, as indicated by the horizontal arrow. When an angular rate is applied externally, a Coriolis force appears, the direction of the force being perpendicular to the direction of mass motion, as indicated by the vertical arrow. The resulting Coriolis force shifts the sense mass, which is proportional to the magnitude of the angular rate applied. Since the moving electrode (rotor) of the sensing portion of the sensor is located on the side of the fixed electrode (stator), the above displacement will cause a change in capacitance between the stator and the rotor, and therefore, the angular rate applied at the input portion of the gyroscope is Converted into a dedicated circuit to detect the electronic parameters --- capacitance.
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