The main technology that fiber optic gyroscopes need to break through is the loss of sensitivity, the drift caused by noise and fiber birefringence, and the instability of the scale factor caused by the change of polarization state.
1. Sensitivity disappears
When the rotation rate approaches zero, the sensitivity disappears. This is due to the fact that the optical density in the detector is proportional to the cosine of the Sagnac phase shift.
2. Noise problem
The noise of the fiber optic gyroscope is due to Rayleigh backscattering. In order to achieve low noise, a light source with a small coherence length should be used.
3. Drift caused by fiber birefringence
If the two oppositely propagating light waves are on different optical paths, drift will occur. The reason for the difference in optical path length is that the single mode fiber has two orthogonal polarization states, and the two polarization states generally propagate at different speeds. Due to environmental influences, the two orthogonal polarization states are randomly changed.
4. The scale factor caused by the change in polarization state is unstable.
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