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Gyroscope functions and six categories

Jan 10, 2019

The main functions of gyroscope include gyroscope, gyrocompass, gyroscope verticals, gyrostabilizer, rate gyroscope, gyrostabilized platform, etc

Various instruments or devices made by utilizing the dynamic characteristics of gyroscopes are described in detail as follows:

A gyro direction finder.A gyro device that gives directions for turning and heading of a flying object.It is a 3-dof balanced gyroscope, its base is fixed to the aircraft, and the rotor shaft provides the given direction of the inertial space.If the rotor shaft is placed horizontally at the beginning and points to the zero position of the instrument, then when the plane turns around the plumb shaft, the instrument rotates relative to the rotor shaft, thus giving an indication of the turning Angle and direction.Due to friction and other disturbances, the rotor shaft will gradually deviate from the original direction, so every period of time (e.g., 15 minutes) must be manually adjusted against the precision compass. 

A gyro compass.A three-degree-of-freedom gyroscope for finding and tracking meridional planes of the earth's surface, used as a directional reference for navigation and flying objects.The outer ring shaft is plumb, the rotor shaft is horizontally placed in the meridian plane, and the positive end refers to the north;The center of gravity deviates from the supporting center downward or upward along the plumb axis.When the rotor shaft deviates from the meridional plane, it deviates from the horizontal plane at the same time and generates a heavy torque, which makes the gyro rotate into the meridional plane.In recent years, electronic gyrocompass is developed to replace gravity pendulum with automatic control system. 

Three gyro verticals.An instrument that USES a pendulum sensor to apply a correction torque to a 3-dof gyroscope to indicate a vertical line.The gyro housing USES the follow-up system to track the position of the rotor shaft. When the rotor shaft deviates from the vertical line, the output signal of the pendulum sensor fixed on the housing causes the torquer to generate a correction torque. Under the action of the torque, the rotor shaft spins back to the vertical line.Gyro verticals is another kind of vertical line indicating or measuring instrument used in aviation and navigation navigation system besides gyro pendulum. 

Four gyro stabilizers.Gyro stabilizer for hull.The schlik passive stabilizer used in the early 20th century is essentially a large two-degree-of-freedom gravity gyroscope mounted on a ship, with its rotor shaft placed in a plumb position and its frame shaft parallel to the ship's transverse axis.When the hull rolls sideways, the gyro moment forces the frame to carry the rotor with it relative to the hull into precession.This swinging precession causes another gyro moment, which stabilizes the hull.Sperry's active stabilizer adds a small maneuvering gyroscope to the device, with its rotor positioned along the transverse axis of the ship.Once the hull is tilted, the small gyro is precessed along its straight axis, so that the control motor on the main gyro frame axis can be started in time, and the active torque in the same direction as the original gyro torque is applied on the axis, so as to strengthen the precessing of the frame and the stabilizing effect on the hull generated by the precessing. 

Five-speed gyroscope.A two - degree - of - freedom gyroscope for direct determination of vehicle angular velocity.The outer ring of the balanced gyroscope is fixed to the vehicle and the axis of the inner ring is perpendicular to the axis of the angular velocity to be measured.When the vehicle and outer ring precess around the measuring axis at an angular velocity, the gyroscopic moment will force the inner ring and rotor to precess against the vehicle.Gyroscopes have springs that limit this relative precession, and the precession Angle of the inner ring is proportional to the amount of deformation of the spring.The gyroscopic moment and the angular velocity of the vehicle can be obtained from the precession Angle of the inner ring at equilibrium.The only difference between an integrating gyroscope and a rate gyroscope is that the spring restraint is replaced by a linear damper.When the vehicle rotates at any variable speed, the output of the integrating gyroscope is the Angle around the measuring axis (the integral of the angular velocity).These two kinds of gyroscopes are widely used in remote measuring system, automatic control and inertial navigation platform. 

Gyro stabilized platform.A gyroscope is used as the core element to stabilize the attitude of the stabilized object relative to the inertial space.The stable platform, which is usually composed of outer ring and inner ring, is called dynamic gyro stabilizer.According to the number of spindles that the object can keep stable, the gyrostabilized platform can be divided into uniaxial, biaxial and triaxial ones.Gyroscopic stabilization platform can be used to stabilize instruments and equipment that need precise orientation, such as measuring instruments, antennas, etc., and has been widely used in aviation and navigation navigation systems and the universal support of fire control and radar.Various types of gyroscopes are used as components according to different principle schemes.The gyroscopic torque generated by gyroscopic precession is used to resist the disturbance torque, and then the signal control and photo system is output.

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