Self-propelled artillery, stepping vehicles, aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, satellites, submarines, ships... These devices all require gyroscopes to measure east and west and judge the upper and lower. In recent years, with the rapid development of optoelectronic technology, the new three-in-one laser gyro, which integrates light, machine and electricity, has been rapidly developed and widely used in fields such as land, sea and air. The laser gyro is also known as the “positioning artifact” of Bohai Tian.
There are many types of laser gyros for different applications, which can be generally divided into indicating gyros and sensing gyros. The gyroscope is indicated to be used as a pilot and driving instrument in the traveling state, and the sensing gyroscope can be used in an automatic control system of a moving object. In order to ensure the normal operation of the compass and the autopilot, more than 10 gyroscopes are used in the general aircraft. The Hubble Space Telescope and the International Space Station system also use a large number of laser gyros to determine their position. In addition, according to the number of frames and the working form, the laser gyro can be divided into three-degree-of-freedom gyroscope, two-degree-of-freedom gyroscope, rate gyroscope, integral gyroscope, unconstrained gyroscope and the like. These gyroscopes, together with mechanical gyroscopes, fiber optic gyroscopes, free-gyro gyroscopes, and vibratory gyroscopes, constitute the "gyro family", which plays a huge role in various modules and various applications.
First of all, the laser gyro can be used to provide real-time heading, speed, altitude, attitude and other spatial position information for all types of aircraft and precision guided weapons, improve the aircraft's reliable flight time, and greatly improve the accuracy of precision guided weapons. The United States successfully applied the laser gyro system to the new generation of remote anti-submarine aircraft "P-7A", which greatly improved the flight stability and detection position accuracy of the aircraft. The laser gyro also provides azimuth reference for maneuvering ballistic missiles and cruise missiles, enabling them to achieve rapid directional positioning and accurately hit targets.
Secondly, the laser gyro can also provide reference data such as heading, speed and position for ships, submarines and torpedoes. They can independently navigate in real time without relying on any external information. The Canadian Navy installed a new generation of inertial navigation systems (INS) equipped with the "MK49" ring laser gyro navigator on the Halifax class frigates, the Iroquois class destroyers and the Victorian class submarines. . The combination of laser gyro and global positioning system (GPS) as the core components of precision navigation system is also widely used in nuclear submarines, aircraft, cruise missiles, intercontinental missiles and satellite guidance. This system has been tested many times. .
In addition, the laser gyro can also be used as a stable regulation system for tanks and infantry fighting vehicles to realize the self-perception of the car body state; it can also be used as an important part of the spacecraft attitude and orbit control system, and can also be used as an inertial guidance system for the launch vehicle. . In other civilian fields, laser gyros can be installed on the telescope to provide real-time angular coordinate information. Ultra-large laser gyros can be used to observe seismic wave information, solid ground tidal effects and gravitational waves. It can be foreseen that with the improvement of laser gyro technology, its application scope will be more extensive, which will inevitably have a huge impact on future wars and daily life.
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