The working principle of the micromachined gyroscope (MEMS gyroscope) The traditional gyroscope mainly uses the principle of conservation of angular momentum, so it is mainly an object that rotates continuously, and its axis of rotation does not change with the rotation of the bracket carrying it. However, the working principle of micromechanical gyroscopes is not the same, because it is not an easy task to fabricate a rotatable structure on a silicon wafer substrate using micromechanical techniques. Micromechanical gyroscopes use Coriolis forces—the tangential forces that a rotating object experiences when it has radial motion.
If the object does not have radial motion on the disc, Coriolis force will not occur. Therefore, in the design of the MEMS gyroscope, this object is driven and continuously moves back and forth or oscillates. The Coriolis force corresponding to this is constantly changing back and forth in the lateral direction, and it is possible to make the object The lateral direction is slightly oscillated, and the phase is exactly 90 degrees from the driving force. MEMS gyroscopes typically have a movable capacitive plate in two directions. The radial capacitive plate plus the oscillating voltage forces the object to move radially (somewhat like the self-test mode in the accelerometer), and the lateral capacitive plate measures the change in capacitance due to lateral Coriolis motion (just like accelerometers measure acceleration) ). Since the Coriolis force is proportional to the angular velocity, the angular velocity can be calculated from the change in capacitance.
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