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Principle of inertial navigation

Sep 30, 2019

At present, inertial navigation is divided into two categories: platform inertial navigation and strapdown inertial navigation. The main difference is that the former has a physical physical platform, the gyro and accelerometer are placed on the platform of the gyro, the platform tracks the navigation coordinate system to achieve speed and position solution, and the attitude data is directly taken from the platform ring. In the strapdown inertial navigation, the gyro and accelerometer are directly attached to the carrier. The function of the inertial platform is done by a computer, so it is sometimes called "mathematical platform", and its attitude data is calculated. Inertial navigation has a fixed drift rate, which will cause errors in the motion of the object. Therefore, long-range weapons usually use timing, GPS, etc. to correct the timing of the inertial navigation to obtain consistent and accurate position parameters. For example, the middle section of the medium-range air-to-air missile uses the strapdown inertial navigation + command correction to obtain continuous and accurate position parameters.

The basic working principle of inertial navigation is based on Newton's laws of mechanics. By measuring the acceleration of the carrier in the inertial reference system, integrating it with time and transforming it into the navigation coordinate system, it can be obtained in the navigation coordinate system. Information such as speed, yaw angle and position. Inertial navigation system is a kind of inferred navigation method. That is, the position of the next point is derived from the position of a known point based on the continuously measured heading angle and velocity of the carrier. Therefore, the current position of the moving body can be continuously measured. The gyroscope in the inertial navigation system is used to form a navigation coordinate system to stabilize the measurement axis of the accelerometer in the coordinate system and give the heading and attitude angles; the accelerometer is used to measure the acceleration of the moving body and the time and time of the movement. The speed is obtained, and the speed is then integrated over time to obtain the distance.


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