He-Ne ring laser gyroscope (He-Ne RLG), compared with the traditional mechanical rotor gyroscope, the main advantage is no mechanical rotor, simple structure (less than 20 parts), good vibration resistance, fast start, reliable High sex, digital output. In addition, some researchers have proposed replacing the helium-neon gas with a solid-state gain medium, which can make the gyroscope work longer, lower cost and simpler to manufacture. This gyroscope is also called solid-state ring laser gyroscope (solid-state RLG). ). At present, the inertial navigation system based on the He-Ne ring laser gyro has been widely used in the fields of navigation, guidance and control of aviation and marine navigation and strategic missiles, and has become one of the main high-performance gyroscopes.
Fiber optic gyroscopes, from the 1960s, the US Naval Research Office hopes to develop a fiber optic angular velocity sensor that is cheaper, simpler to manufacture, and more accurate than the He-Ne ring laser gyroscope, also known as fiber optics. Gyro. Currently, the most common fiber optic gyroscope is a phase sensitive fiber optic gyroscope that calculates the angular velocity by measuring the phase shift of two backpropagating beams in a fiber coil to sense the rotation of the carrier. Therefore, the accuracy of the fiber optic gyroscope depends mainly on the type of fiber used and the photodetection system. The bias value is generally between 0.001 degrees/hour and 0.0002 degrees/hour. Fiber optic gyroscopes are now widely used in torpedoes, tactical missiles, submarines and spacecraft.
Integrated optical gyroscope, with the development of integrated optical path, can realize very complex functions on a single chip. It can integrate integrated annular cavity laser and photoelectric detection circuit of several millimeters in diameter on the same chip as integrated optical gyroscope. Sensitive components, which can greatly reduce the quality and size of existing optical gyroscopes, reduce cost and power consumption, better control thermal effects, and increase reliability. Therefore, optical gyroscopes manufactured by integrated optical technology have good development prospects. . At present, extensive research has been carried out around integrated annular cavity lasers, but key technologies have yet to be broken.
In addition, cutting-edge technologies including nuclear magnetic resonance and superfluids have also been validated and will be applied to new gyroscopes in the future.
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