An inertial navigation system (INS), also called an inertial reference system, is an autonomous navigation system that does not depend on external information and does not radiate energy externally (such as radio navigation). Its working environment includes not only air and ground but also underwater. The basic working principle of inertial navigation is based on Newton's mechanics law. By measuring the acceleration of the carrier in the inertial reference frame, integrating it into time, and converting it into the navigation coordinate system, it can be obtained in the navigation coordinate system. Information such as speed, yaw angle and position.
The inertial navigation system belongs to the method of predictive navigation, that is, from the position of a known point, the position of the next point is deduced from the continuously measured heading angle and speed of the moving body, so that the current position of the moving body can be continuously measured. The gyroscope in the inertial navigation system is used to form a navigation coordinate system, so that the accelerometer's measurement axis is stabilized in this coordinate system, and gives the heading and attitude angle; the accelerometer is used to measure the acceleration of the moving body, passing through the time Once the integral gets the speed, the speed is then integrated over the time to get the distance.
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