Fiber optic gyroscope is an instrument that can accurately determine the position of moving objects. It is an inertial navigation instrument widely used in modern aviation, navigation, aerospace and defense industries. The fiber optic gyroscope is a sensitive element based on the optical fiber coil. The light emitted by the laser diode propagates along the optical fiber in two directions. Different light propagation paths determine the angular displacement of the sensitive element.
Compared with the traditional mechanical gyroscope, the fiber optic gyroscope has the advantages of all solid state, no rotating parts and friction parts, long life, large dynamic range, instant startup, simple structure, small size and light weight. Compared with the laser gyroscope, the fiber-optic gyroscope does not have a locking problem, and it does not need to precisely process the optical path in a quartz block, and the cost is relatively low.
The realization of fiber optic gyroscope is mainly based on Segnik's theory: when the light beam travels in a circular channel, if the circular channel itself has a rotation speed, the time required for the light to travel in the direction of rotation of the channel is longer than that along the channel It takes more time to turn in the opposite direction. That is to say, when the optical loop rotates, in different directions of travel, the optical path of the optical loop will change relative to the optical path when the loop is stationary. Using this change in the optical path, the phase difference between the two optical paths or the change in interference fringes can be detected, and the rotational angular velocity of the optical path can be measured.
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