Accelerometers consist of proof mass (also called sensitive mass), support, potentiometer, spring, damper and housing. The proof mass is constrained by the support and can only move along an axis. This axis is often referred to as the input or sensitive axis. When the instrument housing accelerates along the direction of the sensitive axis, according to Newton's law, the detection quality with a certain inertia maintains its original motion state. A relative movement between the housing and the housing causes the spring to deform, so that the proof mass accelerates under the action of the spring force. When the spring force is balanced with the inertial force generated when the proof mass accelerates the movement, there is no longer relative motion between the proof mass and the housing, and the deformation of the spring reflects the magnitude of the measured acceleration. The potentiometer acts as a displacement sensing element to convert the acceleration signal into an electrical signal for output. Accelerometers are essentially a one-degree-of-freedom oscillating system that uses dampers to improve the dynamic quality of the system.
There are many types of accelerometers: linear accelerometers (detection mass for line displacement) and pendulum accelerometers (detection mass rotation around the support shaft) are classified according to the displacement mode of the detection mass; gemstone support and flexible support are classified according to the support mode. , air floatation, liquid floatation, magnetic suspension and electrostatic suspension; according to the composition of the measurement system, there are open loop and closed loop; according to the working principle, there are vibrating wire, vibrating beam and pendulum integral gyro accelerometer; The number of input axes is classified into single-axis, dual-axis and three-axis accelerometers; piezoelectric, piezoresistive and potentiometer types are classified according to the sensing elements. An accelerometer is usually named by combining the characteristics of several different taxonomies.
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